Our taste (gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system. Taste is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts chemically with taste receptor cells located on taste buds in the oral cavity, mostly on the tongue. Taste, along with smell (olfaction) and trigeminal nerve stimulation (registering texture, pain, and temperature), determines flavors of food and/or other substances. Humans have taste receptors on taste buds (gustatory calyculi) and other areas including the upper surface of the tongue and the epiglottis. The gustatory cortex is responsible for the perception of taste. The tongue is covered with thousands of small bumps called papillae, which are visible to the naked eye. Within each papilla are hundreds of taste buds. The exception to this is the filiform papillae that do not contain taste buds. There are between 2000 and 5000 taste buds that are located on the back and front of the tongue. Others are located on the roof, sides and back of the mouth, and in the throat. Each taste bud contains 50 to 100 taste receptor cells. The sensation of taste includes five established basic tastes: sweetness, sourness, saltiness, bitterness, and umami. Scientific experiments have demonstrated that these five tastes exist and are distinct from one another. Taste buds are able to distinguish between different tastes through detecting interaction with different molecules or ions. Sweet, savory, and bitter tastes are triggered by the binding of molecules to G protein-coupled receptors on the cell membranes of taste buds. Saltiness and sourness are perceived when alkali metal or hydrogen ions enter taste buds, respectively.The basic tastes contribute only partially to the sensation and flavor of food in the mouth—other factors include smell, detected by the olfactory epithelium of the nose; texture, detected through a variety of mechanoreceptors, muscle nerves, etc.; temperature, detected by thermoreceptors; and “coolness” (such as of menthol) and “hotness” (pungency), through chemesthesis. As taste senses both harmful and beneficial things, all basic tastes are classified as either aversive or appetitive, depending upon the effect the things they sense have on our bodies. Sweetness helps to identify energy-rich foods, while bitterness serves as a warning sign of poisons.Among humans, taste perception begins to fade around 50 years of age because of loss of tongue papillae and a general decrease in saliva production. Humans can also have distortion of tastes through dysgeusia. Not all mammals share the same taste senses: some rodents can taste starch (which humans cannot), cats cannot taste sweetness, and several other carnivores including hyenas, dolphins, and sea lions, have lost the ability to sense up to four of their ancestral five taste senses) buds are teased by fumes from barbecues delights of those who are eager to move the cooking outside. What you are inhaling is the beginning (may refer to: “Beginning” (song), by Kotipelto Beginning (album), by Pakho Chau Beginning (play), a 2017 play by David Eldridge) of a new season. There is a fresh smell in the air that we recognize from previous years. Take a deep breath!
Children have rummaged through storage to recover skipping ropes, sidewalk chalk and skateboards that had been given months of rest over the winter and drag them into the yard. We feel the breeze which has a tinge of winter’s crispness as well as the warmth of a sun which appears earlier and remains later each day. There is also expectancy for the vegetative growth of buds, trees and grasses that will soon appear in beautiful fragrances. The fresh air coaxes us into the outdoors where we can observe people who have donned spring coats and ventured outside to walk their dogs, ride bikes or begin the yard cleanup.
Birds sing and sprinklers rhythmically hiss as they rotate over brown lawns. We also hear the sound of radios playing as individuals clean their cars. New beginnings. Smell, taste, feel, see and hear the promise of spring (may refer to: Spring (season), a season of the year Spring (device), a mechanical device that stores energy Spring (hydrology), a natural source of water Spring (mathematics), a geometric surface in the shape of a helically coiled tube Spring (political terminology), often used to name periods of political liberalization Springs (tide), in oceanography, the maximum tide, occurring twice a month during the full and new moon)! We hear the movement of the river which has been released from its frozen state and the sounds of the wind as it travels around the community drying streets and sidewalks. Yes, it’s spring. A time for expectations, new beginnings and the freedom of enjoying nature without the restrictions of boots, mitts, scarves and coats. It’s a time for planning and planting.